Artemova Dar'ya Igorevna, Candidate of juridical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of justice, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Background. In the constitutional state the main role in the resolution of conflicts arising in the society, and not only between the members of this society, but also between a citizen, on the one hand, and the state, its bodies and officials on the other, is given to the court. Most of the existing constitutions and charters of subjects of the Russian Federation contain a two-element system of constitutional (charter) regulations governing the organization and functioning of judicial authority. The first group of regulations is contained in the first sections (chapters) describing the foundations of the constitutional order of the corresponding subject, in relation to the definition of the institutional element of the principle of separation of powers, in the form of the proclamation of the exercise of public powers by the legislative, executive and judicial branches. The second group of standards specifies and itemizees this constitutional principle: the overwhelming majority of constitutions (charters) contains the relevant sections (chapters) devoted to the judicial authority. The content and scope of these sections are significantly different.
Materials and methods. Realization of the research tasks was achieved through the analysis of the legislative acts of the Russian Federation and the Penza region, and normative acts of Penza region, the republics of Buryatia, Sakha (Yakutia). The author used scientific articles by renowned scholars and practitioners.
Results. Based on the criterion of completeness and comprehensiveness of the regulation of these issues, it is possible to allocate relatively independent groups of constitutions (statutes). The first group includes the basic laws of subjects of the Federation, which contains a fairly detailed regulation (Voronezh, Ivanovo region,
etc.). The second group of the constitutions and statutes can be defined as more concise. The constitutional texts of this group include 2–3 (sometimes one – Tambov region) minor articles, the content of which can generally be described as a blanket one. The peculiarity of these two groups of constitutional acts is that the relevant constitutions and statutes combine legal norma in one section (chapter) that regulate the organization and functioning of the judicial system as well as the public prosecutor’s office, lawyers, notaries, including the organization and tactivities of other state and public institutions engaged to a certain extent in protection of rights and freedoms.
Conclusions. In those subjects, where there are no constitutional (charter) courts, for example in the Penza region, in the author’s opinion, their creation is necessary. The Constitutional (Charter) court, through constitutional (statutory) monitoring, interpretation of the basic law, provides not only the supremacy and direct action of the Constitution (Charter), but also the unity, the stability of the constitutional legality and actually participates in the rulemaking process. Often it also fills quite abstract constitutional formulas with particular content. Justice of peace in Russia is officially included into the system of courts of General jurisdiction, and this evidence is strengthened if the jurisdiction is considered in a dichotomic way: General or specialized. But the different approach is also possible, although not so obvious, but at least having the right to exist, as it has been also mentioned in the article.
judicial authority of Penza region, subjects of the Russian Federation, constitutional norms (charter) norms, constitutional (charter) courts, justice of the peace, justice.
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